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prejšnja številka 9

Socialna pedagogika 2002/3

Vol. 6

Kazalo/Contents

: naslednja številka
     
Spremembe odraščanja v sodobnih družbah tveganj Mirjana N. Ule Changes of growing up in the risk societies
Mladi in prostori političnosti Metka Mencin Čeplak Youth and the political sphere
O telesni samopodobi mladih Metka Kuhar Body images of youth
Moram? Smem? Naj? Skrb za hrano Blanka Tivadar, Tanja Kamin Must I? May I? Should I? Food-related concerns
Družina kot projekt: družinske usmeritve mladih v Sloveniji Metka Kuhar, Mirjana N. Ule Family as a project: family orientations of youth in Slovenia

 

 


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Socialna pedagogika, 2002 vol. 6, št. 3, str. 221-238.

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Spremembe odraščanja v sodobnih družbah tveganj Changes of growing up in the risk societies
Mirjana N. Ule, dr. psih., Fakulteta za družbene vede, Kardeljeva ploščad 5, 1000 Ljubljana.

Povzetek

Ob koncu stoletja se zdi, da je od generacijske in kulturne modernizacije mladine iz preteklega stoletja ostala samo potrošniška emancipacija, samostojno nastopanje na trgu potrošniških stilov, mode, imagov in oblikovanja ter estetiziranja telesa. Pomik k dekonstrukciji mladine smo v raziskavah v Sloveniji jasno zaznali že v raziskavi "Mladina '93". Z vsako raziskavo v devetdesetih letih je bolj jasno, da vsakdanji svet mladine v Sloveniji sestavlja mešanica apatije, resignacije in umika v zasebnost. Mladina iz leta 2000 v Sloveniji je preživela vsaj najzgodnejše otroštvo v obdobju ekonomske varnosti prejšnjega sistema, danes pa se sooča z vedno bolj tekmovalnim izobraževalnim sistemom, z zahtevnim in omejujočim trgom delovne sile, upadajočo kakovostjo delovnih odnosov, pomanjkanjem sistema blaginje. To so mladi, ki so bili v devetdesetih letih silovito vrženi iz gotovosti socialističnih trdno strukturiranih in strogo nadzorovanih tranzicijskih vzorcev v morje tveganj in negotovosti tržno reguliranih družb. V sodobnosti se soočajo s konfliktnimi izzivi globalizacije, tehnološkega napredka in ekonomske nerazvitosti na eni strani ter individualizacije, nacionalne mobilizacije in tradicionalnih konfliktov. Tveganja prehodov v odraslost jih silijo v iskanje fleksibilnih strategij, da se z izobraževanjem, delom in zabavo, družino in vrstniškimi odnosi prebijejo do (negotovih) ciljev.

Ključne besede: mladina, negotovost, prehodi, individualizacija, sprememba vrednot, identiteta

Abstract

After the end of the 20th century it seems that all that generational and cultural modernisation has left behind is consumer emancipation and an autonomous position on the market of consumer styles, fashion, images, and the shaping and aestheticisation of the body. A shift towards the deconstruction of youth was clearly identified in Slovenia by the Youth 93 research study. Each subsequent research study in the 1990s has presented further clear evidence that the everyday life of young people in Slovenia consists of a mixture of apathy, resignation and retreat into privacy. The young generation of 2000, whose earliest childhood years were sheltered by the economic security of the previous system, is today confronted with an increasingly competitive education system, a demanding and restrictive labour market, a decline in the quality of relations at work, and the lack of a welfare system. This is the generation that, in the 1990s, was thrust from the certainty of firmly structured, closely supervised, socialist transitional patterns into the welter of risks and uncertainties of the market economy. Today they have to cope with the conflicting challenges of globalisation, technological advance and individualisation on the one hand, and nationalistic mobilisation, economic underdevelopment and traditional conflicts on the other. The risky transition to adulthood compels them to search for flexible strategies that can lead them to their (uncertain) goals through the maze of the education system, work, entertainment, family and peer relations.

Key words: youth, uncertainty, transitions, individualization, value changes, identity


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Socialna pedagogika, 2002 vol. 6, št. 3, str. 239-254.

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Mladi in prostori političnosti Youth and the political sphere
Metka Mencin Čeplak, dr. psih., Fakulteta za družbene vede, Kardeljeva ploščad 5, 1000 Ljubljana.

Povzetek

Analize vrednostnih in življenjskih orientacij mladih v Evropi (tudi v Sloveniji) zadnje desetletje skoraj brez izjeme poudarjajo obrat mladih v zasebnost kot značilnost, po kateri se mladina tega obdobja razlikuje od mladine v osemdesetih, sedemdesetih, šestdesetih. Sintagma 'obrat v zasebnost' med drugim implicira nepolitičnost: ne le da mladih ne zanima institucionalna (strankarska) politika, v njihovih odgovorih celo kritične politične refleksije ni zaznati. Izrazito usmerjenost interesov v zasebno in intimno se običajno razlaga kot odziv na pogoje tveganja (na omejeno zaposlovanje in ne-varno zaposlitev, na razpadanje sistemov blaginje, na vsiljeno tekmovalnost). Pa vendar pasivnost ni nujna, edina možna reakcija na take razmere. In tudi ni, celo v Sloveniji ne, čeprav obvladuje večinski del (ne le mlade) populacije. Za oceno prevladujoče politične kulture je ta večina seveda pomemben objekt raziskovanja, ni pa dovolj. Šele analize tistega, kar je na obrobjih, kar ostaja zamejeno v nekaj odstotkih, analize redkih političnih praks namreč opozorijo na jedra, ki bi lahko sprožala preboje alternativnih politik. Že sam obstoj takih praks opozarja, da se devetdeseta in osemdeseta mogoče niti ne razlikujejo toliko v deležu aktivnih udeleženk in udeležencev. In bolj kot številčnost je za analizo političnega prostora pomemben odziv na njihove prakse, možnost njihovega preboja, njihov položaj v razmerjih političnih moči. Predvsem pa v mladih ne gre iskati krivca za strogo omejen domet ali celo nemoč alternativnih gibanj.

Ključne besede: politika, alternativna politična gibanja, mladina, kritična refleksivnost, obrat v zasebnost

Abstract

The analyses of value and life orientations of young people in Europe (including Slovenia) conducted in the past decade almost invariably stressed a shift towards privacy as a characteristic by which the youth of the past decade is distinguished from the youth of the 1980s, 1970s and the 1960s. The syntagm »shift towards privacy« implies that young people are non-political among other things – not only are they indifferent towards institutional (party) politics, but they also do not display any critical political reflection. The conspicuous focusing of interests on the private and intimate spheres is usually interpreted as a reaction to risky circumstances (limited job opportunities, insecure job positions, the disintegration of welfare systems, enforced competitiveness). However, passivity is neither necessary nor is it the only possible reaction to this situation. And indeed, the reality is different both in Slovenia and elsewhere, even though passivity remains a characteristic of the great majority of (not just young) population. For the evaluation of predominant political culture the said majority is of course a relevant subject of research although not sufficient. Only by analyzing marginal phenomena that are limited to several percents of the population and rare political practices, can we highlight the cores that could bring about a breakthrough in alternative policies. The very existence of such practices alerts us to the fact that the 1990s do not differ so much from the 1980s in terms of the share of active participants. After all, their numbers are less relevant than the reaction to their practices, possibilities of a breakthrough and their position in the relations of political power. But most of all, youth should not be blamed for the limited range, even impotence, of alternative movements.

Key words: politics, alternative political movements, youth, critical reflexivity, shift towards privacy


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Socialna pedagogika, 2002 vol. 6, št. 3, str. 255-278.

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O telesni samopodobi mladih Body images of youth
Metka Kuhar, dipl. komunik., Fakulteta za družbene vede, Kardeljeva ploščad 5, 1000 Ljubljana.
Povzetek

Namen članka je prikazati: 1) kakšna je telesna samopodoba mladih v Sloveniji, 2) kateri dejavniki vplivajo na razvoj (negativne) telesne samopodobe, 3) šolski pristop, ki spodbuja razvoj pozitivne telesne samopodobe mladih. Članek temelji na rezultatih kvantitativne raziskave o telesni samopodobi – ankete med 307 slovenskimi dijakinjami in dijaki, izvedene spomladi leta 2002. Pri analizi podatkov se osredotočamo na: 1) ne/zadovoljstvo s telesnim videzom (splošnim videzom in posameznimi značilnostmi oz. deli telesa), 2) telesne prakse (npr. diete, vadba) in 3) zaznavanje družbeno-kulturnih pritiskov na telesno samopodobo (s strani vrstnikov, družinskih članov in medijev). Rezultati raziskave opozarjajo na zaskrbljujočo stopnjo nezadovoljstva z videzom in pogosto uporabo strategij za spreminjanje telesa, posebej med dekleti. Zaradi negativnega vpliva neugodne telesne samopodobe na celotno samopodobo in počutje ter negativnega vpliva strogih dietnih režimov in drugih načinov nadzorovanja teže na razvoj mladega organizma, opozarjamo na nujnost promoviranja zdrave, pozitivne telesne samopodobe med šolsko mladino.

Ključne besede: telesna samopodoba, mladostniki, šola, samospoštovanje

Abstract

The article deals with following issues: 1) body images of youth in Slovenia, 2) factors that influence development of (negative) body image, 3) school approach for enhancing positive body image of youth and is based on results of a quantitative study on body image. A survey was conducted among Slovenian schoolgirls and schoolboys in autumn 2002. Data analysis is centred around: 1) dis/satisfaction with body image (general appearance and specific body parts), 2) body practices (f.e. diets, exercise) and 3) perception of socio-cultural pressures on body image (peer-, family members- and media- pressures). Results call attention to alarming level of body image dissatisfaction and frequent use of strategies for body change, especially among girls. Considering negative impact of unfavourable body image and weight control techniques on self-image, well-being and development of young organism we draw attention to promotion of health and positive body images among youth.

Key words: body image, youth, school, self-esteem


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Socialna pedagogika, 2002 vol. 6, št. 3, str. 279-308.

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Moram? Smem? Naj? Skrb za hrano Must I? May I? Should I? Food-related concerns
Blanka Tivadar, dr. soc., Tanja Kamin, mag. komunik., obe Fakulteta za družbene vede, Kardeljeva pl. 5, 1000 Ljubljana.
Povzetek

Prispevek predstavlja rezultate prve, kvalitativne faze raziskave o skrbi za (pre)hrano v Sloveniji. Podatki so bili zbrani s pomočjo petih skupinskih pogovorov s skupaj 38 udeleženci in udeleženkami. V osrednjem delu prispevka avtorici opisujeta 11 skupin skrbi, ki so jih najpogosteje omenjali udeleženci raziskave, in so se nanašale na: a) sestavo (pre)hrane, b) "Kaj delajo z našo hrano?" c) pripravo hrane in obnavljanje družinskih odnosov, č) neofobičnost, d) denarne zadeve, e) telo, f) mikrobiološko oporečnost živil, g) BSE, h) etiko, i) namizno estetiko in lepo vedenje za mizo in j) zdravje. Avtorici analizirata, kako se naštete skrbi odražajo v nakupovanju hrane, kuhanju in prehranjevanju in opišeta strategije, ki jih uporabljajo udeleženci za upravljanje z njimi. Med najpogostejšimi so: namerno neupoštevanje informacij, izogibanje določeni hrani, občasne čistilne in shujševalne diete, kupovanje mesa iz znanih, lokalnih virov, simbolične spremembe prehrane (npr. uživanje "lahkih" mlečnih izdelkov) in verovanje, da lahko človeka dobre navade, kot je uživanje jabolk, medu oz. pitje vode na tešče, vsaj en topel obrok dnevno itn. obvarujejo pred večino hudih bolezni.

Ključne besede: prehrana, skrb, zaskrbljenost, tveganje, vedenje potrošnikov

Abstract

The paper presents first, qualitative phase of the research on food related consumer concerns in Slovenia. 5 (focus) group discussions were preformed, 38 informants have been interviewed. Firstly, the paper discusses informants´ most often mentioned concerns, which have been categorized in 11 groups: a) concerns about food ingredients and specific foodstuffs, b) concerns about food preparation and family relations, c) "what are they doing to our food?" concerns, d) neophobia, e) body-related concerns, f) concerns about micro-biological safety of food, g) concerns about infection with BSE agent, h) ethical concerns, i) financial concerns, j) etiquette/formal concerns and k) health related concerns. Secondly, it explores ways in which food related concerns influence individuals’ food shopping, cooking and eating and finally, it analyses strategies informants use to cope with uncertainty e.g. ignoring information, avoiding certain food, occasional diets, buying meat from known sources, symbolical changes in food consumption, convincing her/himself that "good habits" (e.g. eating honey or apple first thing in the morning, eating at least one hot meal in a day etc.) can prevent the majority of serious diseases.

Key words: food-related concerns, consumer concerns, risk perception, consumer behavior


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Socialna pedagogika, 2002 vol. 6, št. 3, str. 308-334.

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Družina kot projekt: družinske usmeritve mladih v Sloveniji Family as a project: family orientations of youth in Slovenia
Metka Kuhar, dipl. komunik., Mirjana N. Ule, dr. Psih., Fakulteta za družbene vede, Kardeljeva pl. 5., 1000 Ljubljana
Povzetek

V članku se ukvarjamo z odnosom mladih v Sloveniji do načrtovanja družine in otrok. Rezultati številnih kvantitativnih raziskav (npr. raziskav mladine) dajejo precej stereotipno sliko: da je družina pomembna vrednota, da mladi želijo imeti družino, da imajo visoka pričakovanja glede otrok in ne kažejo nobenih protinatalitetnih stališč. Ti rezultati so v nasprotju z dejanskimi demografskimi kazalci: prehajanje iz družine staršev v lastno družino je vse kasnejše, število porok vse nižje, rodnost upada, rojevanje se prelaga na poznejšo starost. Da bi preverili in pojasnili razkorak med javnim mnenjem in dejanskim stanjem, smo uporabili bolj subtilne metode raziskovanja: fokusne skupine in poglobljene intervjuje. S kvalitativno analizo smo zajeli tako subjektivno/vrednotno plat, torej zaželene načine življenja v prihodnosti mladih ljudi in mesto, ki ga ima v teh pričakovanjih družina, kakor tudi objektivne pogoje za ustvarjanje družine ter objektivne probleme in ovire, ki tu nastopajo. Rezultati kvalitativne raziskave ne zavračajo ugotovitev kvantitativnih raziskav, vendar pa opozarjajo na objektivne in subjektivne probleme in bojazni, ki spremljajo odločanje za osnovanje dužine. Ugotovili smo, da je nizka rodnost pri mladih odvisna predvsem od: ekonomskih razlogov, zaznane kakovosti življenja, novih tveganj in negotovosti, zaznane velike odgovornosti in zahtevnosti, ki ju prinaša starševstvo. Oblikovanje družine postaja zaradi sprememb v življenjskih potekih, v prehodih iz enega življenjskega obdobja v drugo, zaradi procesov individualizacije in izbirnosti življenjskih poti vse bolj skrbno načrtovan, zahteven in odgovoren projekt.

Ključne besede: mladi, partnerstvo, formiranje družine, življenjski prehod, rodnost, kvalitativna raziskava

Abstract

The article deals with the attitude towards family planning and children. Results from many quantitative surveys (1.e. research of youth) depicts quite stereotypical picture: family is highly ranked by young people in Slovenia, they express wishes to start a family and have children and do not display any attitude that can be understood as unfavorable to the level of birth rate. These findings stand in sharp contrast to demographic indicators: latter transition from parents’ family to their own family, lower level of marriages, postponement of births, lower birth rate. We employed subtler research methods to find a better explanation of the discrepancy between the public opinion and the actual state: focus groups and in-depth interviews. The analysis comprised both subjective aspects (values), that is to say, the desired ways of life expressed by young people and the place of the family in their plans for the future, as well as the objective possibilities for the starting of a family and problems and obstacles accompanying this process. The qualitative results do not reject the findings from quantitative studies but they call attention to the objective and subjective problems and anxieties accompanying decisions for family forming. We find out that the low birth rate can be attributed mainly to economic reasons, quality of life, new risks and uncertainty, and huge and exacting responsibilities arising from parenthood. Family is because of recent developments that introduced changes into life courses and transition into adulthood and created more opportunity to choose life courses, as well as the process of individualization, becoming a carefully planned, demanding and responsible project.

Key words: young people, partnership, family forming, life course transition, fertility, qualitative study